# 5. `set`

Data StructureΒΆ

`set`

is a really useful data structure. `sets`

behave mostly like
lists with the distinction that they can not contain duplicate values.
It is really useful in a lot of cases. For instance you might want to
check whether there are duplicates in a list or not. You have two
options. The first one involves using a `for`

loop. Something like
this:

```
some_list = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'b', 'd', 'm', 'n', 'n']
duplicates = []
for value in some_list:
if some_list.count(value) > 1:
if value not in duplicates:
duplicates.append(value)
print(duplicates)
# Output: ['b', 'n']
```

But there is a simpler and more elegant solution involving `sets`

. You
can simply do something like this:

```
some_list = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'b', 'd', 'm', 'n', 'n']
duplicates = set([x for x in some_list if some_list.count(x) > 1])
print(duplicates)
# Output: set(['b', 'n'])
```

Sets also have a few other methods. Below are some of them.

**Intersection**

You can intersect two sets. For instance:

```
valid = set(['yellow', 'red', 'blue', 'green', 'black'])
input_set = set(['red', 'brown'])
print(input_set.intersection(valid))
# Output: set(['red'])
```

**Difference**

You can find the invalid values in the above example using the difference method. For example:

```
valid = set(['yellow', 'red', 'blue', 'green', 'black'])
input_set = set(['red', 'brown'])
print(input_set.difference(valid))
# Output: set(['brown'])
```

You can also create sets using the new notation:

```
a_set = {'red', 'blue', 'green'}
print(type(a_set))
# Output: <type 'set'>
```

There are a few other methods as well. I would recommend visiting the official documentation and giving it a quick read.